This is part two of a three part series, first presented in August
for the other installments, part
1 and part
Arthur A. Jones, J.D., Dr.jur.
Robin Wiseman, J.D., Dr.h.c.
International Human Rights Law and Policy
c/o Los Angeles Community Policing
email to: Arthur@lacp.org
Fund (PIF) Advisory Committee,
..........Emergency Communications & Information Technology Project
..........County of Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department
..........Leroy D. Baca, Sheriff
..........Dr. Richard Weintraub, Director, Professional Development Bureau
Emergency Communications, Police Stress
and Crisis Management
3 of 3)
European and Other International Developments
studies essentially are self-contained explorations and,
as such, have limited usefulness in the quest for generalizations.
By and large, such generalizations are achieved only through
comparative studies. This is particularly true when attempting
establish common denominators on an enormous scale."
---- Professor Vahakn N. Dadrian
MORALE AND PERFORMANCE: LOWER SAXONY
In our interim report to the P.I.F. Committee dated August 12, 2003,
we devoted the first section to the Beck Studies on police morale
and performance that took place in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain
and Canada between 1991 and the present.
Since that date, we have been in contact with the State of Lower Saxony
(Land Niedersachsen), Germany, which has been conducting a
parallel, continuing study on the same topic which it began with questionnaires
in 1991. The final stages of the survey, together with recommendations
for performance improvement, were completed in December 2003. (Polizei
im Wandel: eine empirische Analyse zur Arbeitssituation von Polizeibeamten
in Niedersachsen, Dept. of Public Affairs and Safety of the
State of Lower Saxony, 2003).
The Lower Saxony studies, limited to a non-English speaking grouping
of police forces, provide a useful contrast to the Beck materials,
which we forwarded to the Landespolizei in Hannover. Lower Saxony
is Germany's second-largest state geographically, and has a population
of just under ten million, thus making it comparable in that respect
to Los Angeles County.
The impetus for expanding and extending their surveys was provided
by two main phenomena:
1990 and the present, all crimes in Germany rose by 20%. Much
of the increase was caused by a flood of immigration, primarily
from former soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe, Russia
and the Middle East, causing an urban concentration of over
five million mostly unassimilated and underemployed non-German
speakers arriving in Germany. Police staffs and budgets have
been severely strained, as the new and varied tasks are extremely
time-consuming and have had negative effects on police morale,
job satisfaction and performance.
2. German police and other first responders, at Federal, State
and local levels, are in the midst of a thorough reappraisal
of their role in the War on Terrorism and in society in general.
As a result, crisis symptoms are more prominent and frequent
among police forces. They include sexual harassment, perceptions
of corruption and ethical lapses, and a dramatic increase in
off-duty or secondary employment. All of these factors tend
to reduce police concentration and performance, according to
the Lower Saxony study results.
Thus, the recently completed studies focused on police "burnout",
reflected in reduced job satisfaction, low morale, and rampant moonlighting.
(Prof. Dr. Ohlemacher, Thomas, Dipl. Psych. C. Bosold and A. Mensching,
Similar to the Beck studies, the Lower Saxony researchers considered
a broad variety of questionnaire responses, and then added an innovative
twist that bears consideration: They interviewed hundreds of civilians,
including merchants and innkeepers (it should be remembered that,
in Germany, the Gasthaus or combination bar, restaurant and
often B & B, enjoys a far more respectable social position than its
U.S. counterpart, and serves as a community focal point and meeting
The shopkeepers and Gasthaus operators provided a clear correlation
between police secondary or off-duty employment and lowered performance,
dilution of confidence in the neighborhood, suspicions of corruption
and reduced respect for police in general.
The Lower Saxony research group is now planning to expand their team
and the scope of their studies. In 2004, the research will be both
quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (discussion groups and
intensive interviews). They will treat policing as comprising four
divisions: Custodial, patrol, investigations and administration. Keeping
separate data will enable them to pinpoint more individualized problem
areas and to respond more flexibly.
Lower Saxony has already produced a set of recommendations for improving
mutual understanding, self-esteem, job satisfaction, morale, and working
conditions among its police forces. We will abstract some of the more
promising ideas and solutions for your consideration in February and
IV. NEW FEDERAL GERMAN DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL SAFETY AND CATASTROPHIC
In mid-November 2003, the German Cabinet created a new Federal Department
of Civil Safety and Catastrophic Aid. It is designed to combine all
primary first responders with most agencies involved in anti-terrorist
It restructures somewhat the existing network of federal and state
agencies, although basic jurisdiction and authority still rest with
the states in Germany's federal system. The new department will have
Civil Safety and Disaster Prevention
Catastrophe Medical Response
Civil Safety Research and Development
Civil Safety Education.
NOTE: Look for other installments, part
1 and part
I. Organizational Stress and Police Performance: The Beck
Studies and their Progeny
II. Recent European Bilateral and Multilateral Treaties on Cross-Border
Cooperation in Police Pursuits: Links to Emergency Communication
A. Jones, J.D., Dr.jur.
Wiseman, J.D., Dr.h.c.
--- Arthur A. Jones and Robin Wiseman are international human
rights lawyers with legal educations in the United States and
They are consultants and authors on international policing, social
policy and human rights, and regular contributors to the forum
at LA Community Policing.
For more of their work, please see the Think
additional information or a complete list of references, contact: